Sunday, 29 August 2010

ARM Programming tutorials

When trying to get started with Single board computers (SBC), System on module (SOM) and system on Chip (SOC), I found it difficult to track down good resources or tutorials.

Sites like this:- www.armtutorial.com/index.html seemed to hi-jack the search for arm tutorials and present adverts when you follow the link. So when I find a good tutorial, I put it here. If you find more, let me know in the comments.


Below is the list I have so far. The most authoritative must be ARM-UK themselves, so the first link is to a large repository of PDFs at their info centre.


Tutorials from the ARM-UK info centre.
http://infocenter.arm.com/help/index.jsp?topic=/com.arm.doc.set.appnotes/index.html

ARM-GCC Inline Assembler programming.
www.ethernut.de/en/documents/arm-inline-asm.htm

Introduction to ARM-SOC, from a London University.
www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/ee2_computing

Programming AT92SAM7 ARM-SOC - An Introduction
www.triplespark.net/elec/pdev/arm/at91sam7.htm

Old but good ARM3 assembly language programming. (PDF)
www.peter-cockerell.net/aalp/html/frames.html

Tour of ARM assembly language

Tuesday, 24 August 2010

Single board computers





https://www.olimex.com/Products/OLinuXino/A10/A10-OLinuXino-LIME/open-source-hardware
Open Source Hardware Embedded ARM Linux single board computer with Allwinner A10 Cortex-A8

Also available with 4GB


  • 1GHz and Mali 400 GPU
  • 512MB DDR3 RAM memory
  • SATA connector with 5V SATA power jack
  • Capable of HD (720p) video playback 
  • HDMI connector

  • 2 x USB High-speed host with power control and current limiter
  • USB-OTG with power control and current limiter
  • 100MBit native Ethernet
  • LiPo Battery connector with battery-charging capabilities
  • LCD row of pins (0.05'' step)
  • 160 GPIOs on four GPIO rows of pins (0.05'' step)
  • MicroSD card connector
  • DEBUG-UART connector for console debug with USB-SERIAL-CABLE-F
  • GPIO LED
  • Battery charge status LED
  • Power LED
  • 2KB EEPROM for MAC address storage and more
  • 3 BUTTONS with ANDROID functionality + RESET button
  • 4 mount holes
  • 5V input power supply, noise immune design
  • PCB dimensions: 84x60 mm

Historical list of older boards:-
https://blackpoollug.blogspot.co.uk/2010/08/


ADlink CoreModule 430 -- Mar. 10, 2009 -- ADlink's latest PC/104 SBC is based on DMP Electronics's x86-compatible Vortex86SX SoC. The "CoreModule 430" includes 256MB of RAM, four serial ports, 10/100 Ethernet, two USB ports, and support for both CRT and TFT displays.



Aaeon NanoCOM-U15

Aaeon NanoCOM-U15 -- Mar. 09, 2009 -- Aaeon's COM exploits the newly proposed "COM Express Ultra" standard. The 84 x 55mm NanoCOM-U15 includes an SDVO (serial digital video out) connector, an Intel Atom Z5xx-series CPU, and up to 4GB of SSD (solid state disk) storage.

ARM9 Samsung S3C2443 SoC

Digi ConnectCore 9M 2443 and ConnectCore Wi-9M 2443 -- Mar. 04, 2009 -- Based on an ARM9 Samsung S3C2443 SoC, these two network-enabled embedded modules from Digi International target networked displays, medical devices, building access controls, energy management devices, time and attendance devices, and scales. The ConnectCore 9M 2443 and WiFi-enabled ConnectCore Wi-9M 2443 offer a variety of interfaces, including Ethernet, USB, serial, and camera support.

Calao TNY-A9G20-C0x

Calao TNY-A9G20-C0x, TNY-A9260-C0x, and TNY-A9263-C0x -- Feb. 09, 2009 -- Calao Systems's Linux-ready "TinyCore" SBC modules are offered with Atmel's ARM9-based processors, including the 400MHz AT91SAM9G20, 200MHz AT91SAM9263, and 180MHz AT91SAM9260. The TNY-A9G20-C0x, TNY-A9260-C0x, and TNY-A9263-C0x modules each measure a scant 1.4 x 1.6 inches, and ship with 64MB of SDRAM, 256MB of flash, micro-USB connections, serial debug interface, and other I/O.

Armadeus APF27

Armadeus APF27 -- Feb. 26, 2009 -- Armadeus Systems's low-cost system-on-module (SOM) is available with a development board and a Linux community distribution. The "APF27" processor module is built around an ARM9 Freescale i.MX27 system-on-chip (SoC) and a Xilinx Spartan3A FPGA, and offers a variety of I/O.

Icop VDX-635

Icop VDX-6354 -- Jan. 13, 2009 -- Icop's PC/104 computer module is based on a 32-bit, 800MHz x86-compatible SoC that is claimed to run Linux on under two Watts. The "VDX-6354" has 256MB of RAM, 4GB of flash, 10/100 Ethernet, audio, and an onboard VGA controller.

gumstix overoearth2-sm

Gumstix Overo Earth -- Oct. 28, 2008 -- Gumstix's heir to the popular Verdex SBC is another open-source, gumstick-shaped SBC, but with a more powerful ARM Cortex-A8-based Texas Instruments (TI) OMAP 3503. The Linux-based Overo Earth measures 0.7 x 2.3 x 0.2 inches, 40 percent smaller than the Verdex, and offers 256MB of DDR RAM, 256MB of flash, an on-board microSD adapter, a 24-pin flex ribbon connector for camera control, and dual 70-pin AVX 5602-14 connectors for various functional options.

ARM9-based Cirrus EP9302 SoC

Emac SoM-9307M -- Sep. 19, 2008 -- Emac's SO-DIMM-sized processor module is built around an ARM9-based Cirrus EP9302 SoC. The SoM-9307M targets development of customized products and applications, and runs Linux, Windows CE 6.0, or the .NET Micro Framework.

Glomation GESBC-9260

Glomation GESBC-9260 -- Aug. 06, 2008 -- This ARM9-powered single-board computer (SBC) from Glomation runs Linux and costs just $69 in volume. The GESBC-9260 measures 3.75 x 3.5 inches, sports Atmel's 200MHz AT91SAM9260, and targets "highly connected image processing applications" such as Ethernet-based IP cameras, and bar code readers.

Via P700

-- Jun. 30, 2008 -- This Via Technologies motherboard uses its tiny 3.9 x 2.8 inch pico-ITX format, and is available with a 1GHz C7 or 500MHz Eden ULV processor. The P700 boasts an onboard DC-DC adapter, and comes with two daughterboards that add real-world I/O connectors.



The new Epia P700 pico-ITX is available with the 1GHz Via C7 processor as the Via Epia P700-10L, or with the fanless 500MHz Eden ULV as the Epia P700-05LE. Both models include an integrated power adapter, enabling them to accept 12VDC power directly -- and even power 5V SATA drives -- without an external power daughterboard. Compared to the older pico-ITX products, other improvements include gigabit Ethernet, and bundled companion boards with real-world connectors.


The Epia P700 pico-ITX comes with P700-A and P700-B "companion boards" that fit atop the linear pin headers located at the left and right of the main board, as seen below. The P700-A provides an RJ45 connector for gigabit Ethernet, a VGA port, and a COM port, while P-700B sports four USB ports and three audio jacks. Other connectors on the Epia P700 include a 44-pin IDE connector, and a SATA connector.

Securely mounted, the P700's daughterboards can effectively be considered part of the main board. However, they do approximately double its width (overall system dimensions were not cited by Via). Alternatively, for installations where a small footprint is more important than overall system height, the companion boards could be mounted below the main board, given suitable cabling and mounting brackets.

As mentioned, the Epia P700 pico-ITX is offered with a choice of CPUs, both supported by Via's VX700, a core-logic chip that integrates the company's VN800 northbridge and VT8237 southbridge functionality. Graphics capabilities include 2D/3D graphics acceleration, MPEG2 support, and dual monitor outputs. Meanwhile, a single SODIMM socket accommodates up to 1GB of DDR2 533 SDRAM memory.

Via lists the following key features and specifications for the Epia P700 pico-ITX board:
Processor/chipset:
Via Eden ULV 500 clocked at 500MHz or 1.0GHz Via C7
Via VX700 Unified Digital Media IGP chipset
Memory -- DDR2 533MHz SODIMM socket for up to 1GB memory
Display -- integrated Via UniChrome Pro II 3D/2D AGP graphics with MPEG-2/4 and WMV9 decoding acceleration
Networking -- Via VT6122 gigabit Ethernet controller
I/O:
Pin connectors:
1 x LAN
1 x CRT/DVI
1 x COM
1 x CPU fan connector
1 x audio pin connector for line out, line in, mic in
4 x USB 2.0
1 x PS/2 keyboard/mouse
1 x LVDS
1 x LPC/SM Bus/GPIO
Real-world connectors (on companion boards):
1 x RJ45 gigabit Ethernet
1 x VGA
1 x COM
4 x USB 2.0
3 x 3.5mm audio (line out, line in, mic in)
Dimensions -- 3.9 x 2.8 inches (main board)
Operating temperature -- 0 to 50 deg. C
Dimensions -- 3.9 x 2.8 inches (100 x 72mm)
Power consumption -- "under 13 watts"

Embedian MXM-8310 and MXM-8110

Embedian MXM-8310 and MXM-8110 -- Jul. 10, 2008 -- These two computer-on-modules (COMs) from Embedian are available with a baseboard that connects via an MXM (Mobile PCI Express Module) connector. The MXM-8310 and MXM-8110 run Debian on a PXA320 (Monahans-P) processor, and offer interfaces for Ethernet, USB, TFT LCD, RS232, CF, and IDE.

Cogent CSB737

Cogent CSB737 -- Apr. 24, 2008 -- This SO-DIMM-sized (2.6 x 2.0 inches) computer module from Cogent Computer Systems targets "any size-restricted, low-power embedded system." Based on Atmel's AT91SAM9263 processor, the CSB737 runs Linux, and is available with a development kit and carrier board.

Debian-based KB9260

KwikByte KB9260 -- Mar. 12, 2008 -- KwikByte's 3.1 x 3.1-inch SBC targets general purpose computing, embedded controls, machine vision, remote monitoring, and database/web servers. The Debian-based KB9260 incorporates a 200MHz ARM9-based AT91SAM9260 processor, offers a variety of I/O interfaces, and costs only $80 in volume.

Icop VSX-6115

Icop VSX-6115 -- Dec. 18, 2007 -- Icop Technology's "low-power embedded controller" is effectively a complete headless PC crammed onto a board measuring 4 x 2.6 inches. The VSX-6115 runs Linux on a 32-bit x86-compatible Vortex86SX SoC from DMP Electronics, clocked at 300MHz.

ARM development on a virtual platform




This is an article related to what is commonly called the Virtual Platform or Virtual Prototype. There are probably many definitions of what this means. here it means the Virtual Platform as a software model of a hardware system, created for the purpose of running embedded software and verifying the hardware/software interaction.

Here are some general characteristics to help clarify what the Virtual Platform is:

  • Runs unmodified target code
  • Uses instruction accurate models of processors 
  • Provides a full programmers view
  • Runs very fast (may be faster than the hardware it emulates)
  • Has excellent visibility and control (compared to physical hardware)
  • Is easy to distribute to many users


Virtual Platforms have been available since somebody had the idea to make a software model of the hardware.

I expect that many software engineers already understand the details about how to select operating systems, write device drivers, create and populate file systems, cross compile software, program flash memory, etc., but sometimes software engineers are not familiar with virtual systems since somebody else sets up all the infrastructure and they just "add code" in the right place.

I'm sure that virtual platforms are (or will become) critical to verification engineers and people who have worked primarily with RTL simulation in the past and are making the transition to the next level of abstraction.
Virtual Platforms can play a key role in system verification and delivery of high quality software sooner in the process.

The hardware system to be virtualized is the ARM Integrator CP board. It is an older board that was supplied by ARM and according to the ARM website is no longer promoted because newer hardware platforms have been developed.

Not being a state of the art board that means there is a lot of public information available as well as software.

One of the benefits of the Virtual Platform becomes apparent immediately. First, a software company probably wouldn't understand the need to buy a board to develop embedded software.
Next, if a physical board was needed I doubt any readers would buy the board to learn about how embedded software development and verification works.

Since we have Virtual Platform technology nobody needs to buy any hardware and everybody can contribute. All that is needed is a computer, and the Qemu emulator.

Instead of actually reading the User Guide, we can start with a quick overview of the Integrator board and its memory map:
ARM926EJ-S CPU
Peripherals                                        Base Address
Primary Interrupt Controller                    0x14000000
Secondary Interrupt Controller                0xca000000
Counter / Timer                                     0x13000000
Real time Clock                                    0x15000000
UART 0                                                0x16000000
UART 1                                                0x17000000
Control Registers                                  0xcb000000
Keyboard Controller                               0x18000000
Mouse Controller                                   0x19000000
Multimedia Card                                    0x1c000000
Ethernet Controller                                0xc8000000
LCD Controller                                      0xc0000000

There are many uses for the Virtual Platform. A common one we can start with is to boot the operating system and run applications. Another one is to write device drivers and debug them.

Linux will be used as the operating system to load on the virtual device. Again, there is a wealth of information available and Linux is becoming popular as an embedded operating system.

To start, download QEMU which will emulate the Integrator board and boot Linux.

Get QEMU here. QEMU is an open source processor emulator which is available to run on both Linux and MS Windows.

If you have a Linux machine it may be installed already or can be installed using your package manager.


Once you have qemu installed it's time to get a Linux kernel and file system and boot it.

There are Fedora and Debian howto links on the home page with step by step guides.

An easy starting point is to download the ARM Linux 2.6 kernel and ram disk file system image from the qemu website. Extract this file and go to the arm-test directory.
As the README shows you can boot doing:
% qemu-system-arm -kernel zImage.integrator -initrd arm_root.img

If all goes well you will see a new window:

Photobucket

You can login as root with no password and you have a Linux system running on the ARM Integrator CP Board with the ARM926EJ-S processor.

You can use
Ctrl-Alt-2 to get to the qemu command prompt, type help to see the commands or type quit to exit.
Ctrl-Alt-1 will get back to the console (this is actually the LCD controller).
Ctrl-Alt-3 will get to UART 0 and allows another login window.
Ctrl-Alt is the key to release the keyboard and mouse.

Now try some networking:
% wget http://www.google.com
This will download index.html This is a ramdisk so next time you boot the file will be gone.
To browse the web use the lynx browser:
% lynx google.com

Other than being pretty cool, this exercise raises many questions:

  • How is the Integrator Board modeled?
  • How does qemu know I want to run the Integrator board?  There was no configuration or arguments.
  • What's in the file zImage.integrator?
  • What's in the file arm_root.img
  • How is the Ethernet controller on the Integrator board able to access the Internet?
  • Can I debug code running on the Integrator board?
  • This is a minimalist system, how can I compile and add more programs to it?


Original article:
http://www.cadence.com/Community/blogs/sd/archive/2009/01/16/welcome-to-quot-understanding-the-virtual-platform-quot-series.aspx?postID=13987

Tuesday, 27 July 2010

Acorn atom front view



Base removed showing circuit board

The standard 5V regulator has been removed. The red and black wires went to a regulated 5V supply
The socket for the 6522 wiki/MOS_Technology_6522  is empty.




Circuit diagram




Acorn atom

Tuesday, 1 June 2010

June update (2010)

This project has been stalled for a while, because:
Once I had got as far as running the Fedora ARM port in Qemu, I realised how rusty my coding skill were.

I also realised that although I enjoyed playing around with hardware, it is unlikely that I have the required ability now that Dual in Line (DIL) packages have disappeared and been replaced with surface mount devices that I can barely see let alone solder.

As a result of the above realisation, I will probably start playing with the Android OS for PC, and maybe buy a pre-built development board later.
Another option might be to buy and Android based phone and use that instead of a development board, as is demonstrated in this IBM guide:-
here

Download and install instructions for Android
here

Read is Android the 'top' Linux 
here

Thursday, 4 March 2010

Fedora ARM in qemu

First attempts with Fedora Arm running in qemu on Linux Mint 8.


The picture below (click to enlarge) shows a small c file in the Vi editor, with one line of inline ARM assembler (a NOP instruction) and a puts statement which puts hello on the screen so that you can see something has happened.

Instructions on how to get Fedora ARM running in Qemu are here:-

http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Architectures/ARM/HowToQemu

















The file above is saved as test.c, and compiled with:-  gcc test.c
the resulting file is called a.out, run it with ./a.out to see 'hello' appear on the screen.
There are numerous options which can be applied at compile time.
If you do not want the output file to be called a.out, use gcc -o myoutputfile test.c
the -g option will produce debugging information for the gdb debugger to use.
See the gcc manual for all options.  http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/

as you can see below, a.out does not run,
./a.out is required.


















Below,
using a terminal on the desktop and trying to compile test.c outside of the emulator. This causes an error indicating that ARM assembler instructions are not acceptable to the X86 compiler.
This is expected behaviour. A cross compiler would be needed to compile for ARM on a PC.


Wednesday, 3 March 2010

ARM (assembler) programming reference material

http://www.ethernut.de/en/documents/arm-inline-asm.html
http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/ee2_computing/
http://www.triplespark.net/elec/pdev/arm/at91sam7.html
http://www.armtutorial.com/index.html
http://www.peter-cockerell.net/aalp/html/frames.html

Wednesday, 27 January 2010

Elonex ONEt hacking

http://members.home.nl/janrinze/trendtac.html#Restoring_the_kernel_in_flash



« on: September 11, 2008, 10:43:40 PM »


I think this is the same device as the Elonex Onet

Device manufacturer:
http://www.cnmlifestyle.com/



The site of a Dutch guy who's had some success in hacking software and hardware. This includes links to the Dutch importer's site that are also worth looking at:
http://members.home.nl/janrinze/trendtac.html


xterm on the Elonex ONE

xterm on the Elonex ONE

Three of the members of our Google Group have pooled their ideas and come up with a way to get the "xterm" terminal console onto the ONE's menu.

This is probably going to be a very useful thing to do, as I can imagine that lots of other Elonex ONE tips are going to start: "open up xterm and type the following commands..."

Anyway this is what you have to do to get xterm on your menu:

Pop up the virtual keyboard with alt-tab and hover over the xkbd logo.

Hold down the left button and select 'manual' and miraculously xterm will appear, running as "root".
type: cd /home/user
type: vi .icewm/menu
..then you're in the menu file. Find a suitable location for your menu entry, and type a line that says:
prog "xterm" xterm /bin/sh -c "xterm"
Make sure it lines up like the other lines, then save and close the file. (If '-c' doesn't work, try '-x' instead.)
Now hit the "One" button and see your new menu option.

Elonex ONEt has ARM processor

Your best bet is the Dutch Trendtac user group... I have found that
gang a very helpful bunch and with the most advanced "hacking"
experience:
http://trendtac.hyves.nl/
There are a couple of thread there, specifically "Apps" and "Games"
which have a collection of interesting stuff, mainly for me VNC viewer
and Doom (!)

Your first port of call though should be this website which has a
small collection of useful software:
http://www.xs4all.nl/~jostht/epc/
Ultimately you can grab and convert Debian Lenny mipsel packages
(http://www.debian.org/distrib/packages) to .xap format (the OneT's
format) with "mkxap" script available at the URL above. In short the
procedure is as follows on either a Linux box, through the OneT's
xterm or root console or in a Cygwin prompt:

1. go to a new directory, i.e. "mkdir temp", "cd temp"
2. download the .deb package from the Debian website
2. expand the .deb package with "ar -x .deb"
3. uncompress the data.tar.gz file "tar zxvf .tar.gz" in
its component directories
4. repackage the file as a .xap "mkxap directories
5. you can now go to the Software installer and install the .xap
and .info files from the "temp" directory

Please remember to check for dependancies for the Debian packages on
download page as you may need to convert those too for the binaries to
work.
It's a clunky process but I have succesfully converted a couple of
programs and it is a whole lot simpler than building a cross-compiler
environment and make your own binaries! ;-)

On the other hand there are a number of wiser people than me out there
working at getting proper debian running on this low-spec gadget and
that will make it a lot more useful.

Bear in mind that run-of-the-mill techies are not enough for hacking
this gadget... you'll need people with experience of building software
on non-x86 cpu. Or just a lot of Googling and trial and error (I'm in
this category)

Sites with specialist Elonex ONEt software


http://freespace.virgin.net/hugh.satow/gtk/ has some Card Games and some Puzzles and a quick note taking program - I particularly like the puzzles.

Each of these additional programs use up one of the icon spaces on the Elonex ONEt desktop - you have 5 screens of 15 icons, 75 in total - and some of the icons only want to display in certain places, which can mean that sometimes you add a program and don't see an icon because it's hidden by one for another program. To solve this you need to edit the relevant .desktop file. The simplest way to do this is to use the "Nedit" program downloaded from - launch the program, then select file open and type in the full path name of the file you want to edit - you discover the pathname by using the Bon Echo Internet Browser - type the address file:///share/applications into the Browser address bar (and, yes, you do need three "slashes" together - the pathname you want is: /share/applications/programname.desktop - replace programname by the actual name used for the file, when you edit the file the number on the line that starts Categories= determines which screen the icon appears on (numbered from 1 to 5) and the number on the line that starts ItemIndex= determines the position on the screen (numbered from 0 to 14) - a number of -1 means "place at the end" a # symbol at the beginning of a line makes it a comment so it's ignored - leaving out or commenting out the ItemIndex= line let's the Elonex place the icon at the earliest available position - if an icon cannot be placed at the requested position it will be placed at the next available later position (but never at an earlier position) - the actual places are determined by the order in which the files are read when the computer starts - so you won't see your changes until you restart the computer.

You can now understand why I quite like Firefox Addons and Flash Games (they don't use up any of your icons) and Games and Puzzles where one icon launches a program giving you access to many games or puzzles (they give you a lot of value for each icon used).

Tuesday, 26 January 2010

GNU ARM toolchain guide from IBM

 Extract:-

The toolchain provides the ever-popular GDB for debugging low-level programs. When the program is targeted for a single-board computer with a JTAG or ICE unit attached, you can use the Sourcery G++ Lite debugger (gdb) to debug the ARM code remotely.
If you wish to test the code as I did—on the Android Linux system running on a mobile phone—you need to attach the phone to the workstation using the USB cable that came with it, then use the Android software development kit's (SDK's) adb push command to transfer the program to the phone. Once on the phone, in a directory that can contain executable code (/data/local/bin), make the program executable by issuing the chmod 555 hw command. (The chmod command on Android doesn't use +x, so 555 is necessary, instead.)
Finally, use the adb shell command to connect to the phone, use cd to change to the correct directory, and run it with ./hw. If all goes according to plan, the program should respond as it did on my phone, by greeting you with "Hello Android!"

Read more here:-

GNU ARM toolchain guide from IBM

GNU ARM Assembler 3 page quick reference

Assembler Quick reference

Not so quick at 30+ pages

ARM GCC inline assembly

Free ARM programming book

Free ARM programming book as PDF

Whirlwind Tour of ARM Assembly

23. Whirlwind Tour of ARM Assembly

Original source here

Development tools and boards from Olimex



DOCUMENTS:
HARDWARE:
SOFTWARE:
  • H-JTAG freeware RDI151 server supports ARM-JTAG for every debugger/IDE which have RDI151 support. The setup should be as on this picture.
  • open source debugger diplom project from Dominic Rath with target to replace OCDdeamon for debugging with Insight/GDB.
  • YAGARTO open source Windows nad MACOS GCC setup
  • EWARM professional C compiler and debugger.There is free kickstart version which is with unlimited assembly language and 32K limit for C code from IAR Systems AB Sweden. Tested to work with H-JTAG RDI151 and our ARM-JTAG. The flash download to our LPC2138 board show about 30% slower flash programming than the expensive USB J-Link adapter from Segger. According to IAR Systems their EW-ARM is benchmark leader.
  • CrossWork for ARM IDE and debuger on top of GCC from Rowley Associates, this is the very first package to support smoothly Wiggler and ARM-JTAG.
  • OCDeamon toolchain and debugger from Macraigor Systems. Quite unstabile software, when it wants to work it works, when it doesn't want to work it doesn't. too dependand of computer CPU speed, parallel port settings etc. Macraigor is the original developer of Wiggler, but after the Wiggler clones flooded the internet they don't support quite this product.
  • WinARM - easy to install open source GCC toolchain by Martin Thomas. Lots of examples for our LPC boards are included in the installation. Simple tutorial how to setup our ARM-JTAG you can find here.
  • GNUARM another GCC toolchain from Arius.
  • Do-it-yourself 3D printer with LPC-H2148 as controller, contain also instructions how to setup Eclipse and GCC as development environment

New to ARM development?

If you are very new to ARM microcomputers, there’s no better introductory book
than “The Insider’s Guide to the Philips ARM7-Based Microcontrollers” by
Trevor Martin. Martin is an executive of Hitex, a UK vendor of embedded
microcomputer development software and hardware and he obviously understands
his material.
You must register first, then you can download this e-book for free from the Hitex web site.
http://www.hitex.co.uk/arm/lpc2000book/index.html


This is another excellent introduction to ARM Cross Development With Eclipse Components, the free open source system, available as a free download with no need to register:-
http://gnuarm.alexthegeek.com/ARM_Cross_Development_With_Eclipse_Components_Revision3_March_17_2006.pdf
Other resources are available at Alex the Geek


Snippet from the Hitex book:-

1.6 The ARM 7 Instruction Set
Now that we have an idea of the ARM7 architecture, programmers model and operating modes we need to take
a look at its instruction set or rather sets. Since all our programming examples are written in C there is no need
to be an expert ARM7 assembly programmer. However an understanding of the underlying machine code is
very important in developing efficient programs. Before we start our overview of the ARM7 instructions it is
important to set out a few technicalities. The ARM7 CPU has two instruction sets: the ARM instruction set which
has 32-bit wide instructions and the THUMB instruction set which has 16-bit wide instructions. In the following
section the use of the word ARM means the 32-bit instruction set and ARM7 refers to the CPU.
The ARM7 is designed to operate as a big-endian or little-endian processor. That is, the MSB is located at the
high order bit or the low order bit. You may be pleased to hear that the LPC2000 family fixes the endianess of
the processor as little endian (i.e. MSB at highest bit address), which does make it a lot easier to work with.
However the ARM7 compiler you are working with will be able to compile code as little endian or big endian.
You must be sure you have it set correctly or the compiled code will be back to front.

Sunday, 24 January 2010

CM-X300 Computer-On-Module $49

http://www.compulab.co.il/x300/html/x300-cm-datasheet.htm?gclid=CIXkl9DOvZ8CFVBd4wodlRH3zQ

 CM-X300 Computer-On-Module          
CM-X300  Top
CM-X300 Bottom

CM-X300 Highlights
Full-featured Computer-On-Module starting at $49 !
XScale PXA300 / PXA310 / PXA320 CPU, up to 624 MHz, 32+32 KB cache, WMMX2
64 - 128 Mbyte DDR
512 Mbyte Flash Disk, including filesystem protection
WLAN / WiFi 802.11b/g Interface
Bluetooth interface
Graphics controller supporting STN and TFT panels with 800600 max resolution
see LCD panel support
H/W support for H.264, MPEG-4, H.263, MPEG-2, RealVideo, WMV9 and other video codecs.
General purpose bus
AC97, SDIO / MMC interfaces
Camera Interface port
Sound codec with speaker and microphone support
Touchscreen Controller
USB Slave / Host / OTG ports
Serial ports, GPIO
100 Mbps Ethernet port
Very low standby and active power consumption
Battery charger and management support
66 x 44 x 7 mm
Interchangeable with other modules via CAMI connectors
SB-X300 - turns the CM-X300 module into a tiny single board computer


The CM-X300 is a small Computer-on-Module board designed to serve as a building block in embedded applications. The CM-X300 has all the components required to run operating systems such as Linux and Windows CE. Ready packages for these operating systems are available from CompuLab.
The small size and low power consumption of the CM-X300 allows its integration into hand-held and mobile devices, while its low price makes it an ideal selection for cost-sensitive applications.  The CM-X300 delivers a price / performance ratio significantly better than that of any other platform.
The feature set of the CM-X300 module combines a 32-bit CPU, DDR, Flash Disk and vital computing peripherals. For embedded applications, the CM-X300 provides a general purpose local bus, 100Mbit Ethernet, serial ports, I/O lines and other essential functions.
Targeting the handheld application market as well, the module provides integrated WLAN (WiFi) and Bluetooth interfaces to implement industry standard wireless connectivity. Integrated battery charging and management enables easy integration in battery-powered mobile devices.
The standardized CAMI ("CompuLab's Aggregated Module Interface") connectors of the CM-X300 module allow interchangeability with other Computer-On-Module's available from CompuLab, enabling the flexibility required in a dynamic market where application requirements can change rapidly.
See O/S Support Coverage Map
For more information, see
Developer Resources page
Block Diagram


CM-X300 Features
"Option" column specifies the configuration code required to have the particular feature.
"+" means that the feature is always available.

CPU, Memory and Busses
Feature Specifications Option
CPU Marvell XScale PXA300 / PXA310 / PXA320 CPU
208 / 624 MHz, WMMX2, 2*128K internal SRAM
32 KB I-cache and 32 KB D-cache, WB, 128 MB address space
DMA and  Interrupt controllers, Timers
C
RAM 64 - 128 MB, DDR, 208 MHz, 16-bit D
NAND Flash Disk 512 Mbytes, bootable. N
External local bus 16-bit,  variable rate up to 52 MHz, 3.3V tolerance +
AC97 bus AC97 / AMC97 Rev 2.1 compliant +
Peripherals
Feature 
Specifications
Option
Graphics Controller 
8/16 bit color, TFT / STN, frame buffer in CPU SRAM or system DDR
Resolution: up to 800 x 480 x 16 without restrictions, and up to 1024 x 1024 with some restrictions about overlays, BPP and pixel clock.
+
Camera Interface 
Direct camera sensor support, max resolution 2560 x 2048, pixel clock up to 52MHz. Available only with PXA310 CPU.
C624M
Hardware acceleration
Supports up to D1 decode and encode performance for codecs including H.264, MPEG-4, H.263, MPEG-2, RealVideo and Microsoft WMV9.
Hardware scaling, rotation and other raster graphics operations.
* Implemented by PXA310 CPU
C624M
USB
Host/Slave (OTG) port, 12 Mbps, 23-endpoints (in slave mode), OHCI v1.0
Host port (shared with Bluetooth, therefore not available with "W" option)
+
W
Serial Ports
(UARTs)
Up to 3 UART ports, 16550 compatible, max 921 kbps
COM-A - RS232, Rx / Tx
COM-C - TTL, full modem controls
COM-D - TTL, partial modem controls

+
+
+
General Purpose I/O
42 dedicated lines (32 I2C-controlled + 10 memory-mapped) plus additional lines shared with other functions. Can also be used as interrupt inputs.
+
Keyboard & mouse
USB, keypad or redirection from COM port
+
Ethernet
Davicom DM9000A MAC & PHY, 10/100BaseT, Activity LED's
E
Audio codec
Wolfson W9712L, AC97 interface, mono microphone input, stereo line input and 25 mW output for active speakers
AT
Touchscreen ctrl.
A part of the W9712L codec chip. Supports resistive touch panels.
AT
RTC
Real Time Clock, powered by external lithium battery
+
WiFi
Interface
Implements 802.11b/g wireless connectivity standard
Supports Node to Access Point and Multi-Node (w/o access point) methods of connection. (but cannot act as Access Point)
Marvell 88W8686  802.11b/g chipset.
On-board ceramic chip antenna and connector for external antenna.
W
Bluetooth
Bluetooth V2.0+EDR system. CSR BlueCore4-ROM chipset, 2.4GHz band, up to 3Mbps. On-board ceramic chip antenna and connector for external antenna.
Bluetooth and WiFi interfaces are always assembled together, and therefore are specified by the same assembling option.
W
Electrical, Mechanical and Environmental Specifications
Supply Voltage Single 3.3V or 3.6V battery
Active power consumption 0.2 - 2 W, depending on configuration and CPU speed
Standby/Sleep consumption 20 - 100 mW, depending on configuration and mode
Dimensions 66 x 44 x 7 mm
Weight 25 gram
MTBF > 100,000 hours
Operation temperature (case)
Commercial:    0o to 70o C
Extended: -20o to 70o C
Industrial: -40o to 85o C. Click for availability note
Storage temperature -40o to 85o C
Relative humidity 10% to 90% (operation)
05% to 95% (storage)
Shock 50G / 20 ms
Vibration 20G / 0 - 600 Hz
Connectors 2 x 140 pin, 0.6 mm
Connector insertion / removal 50 cycles
For more information see:
- CM-X300 Reference Guide
- Developer Resources



Tools for ARM7, ARM9, ARM11, Cortex Devices

http://www.directinsight.co.uk/microcontroller/arm-tools.html

Processors - Direct Insight Tools for ARM7, ARM9, ARM11, Cortex Devices

Devices:
We offer comprehensive tool support for virtually all derivatives and cores including:
ARM Cortex-A8, Cortex-R4, Cortex-M3, ARM11, ARM720T, ARM920T, ARM922T, ARM926EJ-S, (F)-S, ARM7EJ-S, ARM7TDMI, ARM7TDMI-S, ARM946E-S, ARM966E-S, ARM968E-S. We have separate pages dedicated to Intel XScale, Marvell PXA270, PXA310, PXA320 and i.MX27, i.MX25 and i.MX37 processors.

Integrated Development Environment: IAR Systems

IAR Embedded Workbench provides a completely integrated development environment including a project manager, editor, build tools and the C-SPY debugger. In a continuous workflow, you can create source files and projects, build applications and debug them in a simulator or on hardware. IAR Systems is well known for highly optimized compilers. Every C/C++ compiler contains both generic global optimizations as well as low-level chip-specific optimizations that take advantage of all the specific features of your selected device.
The optional PowerPAC RTOS adds an affordable real-time kernel, file system, and optional USB and Ethernet support.

KickStart Development Board ImageKickStart Kits for NXP LPC, Atmel SAM7/SAM9, Luminary, STR7/9, STM32, Toshiba TMPA9/M3: IAR Systems
IAR KickStart Kits contain everything you need to get started with development, and to try out your application directly on the device. Each kit includes code-size limited development system with C/C++ compiler and example code, development board and- JTAG probe with flash programming

JTAG emulators and debuggers: Sophia
We offer a broad range of JTAG debuggers to cover every imaginable combination of development environments, embedded OS and target device.

Sophia EJ-SCT Sophia's EJ-SCT is a powerful, USB-powered probe with configurable support for all ARM families. Most popular development boards are supported out of the box, and the powerful Watchpoint debugger features optional interfaces to GDB for Linux targets, and Microsoft Platform Builder for hardware-assisted debugging of targets running Windows CE 6.0.
The advanced EJ-Extreme supports up to 100Gig of ETM and RTP trace.